6. Accounting and consolidation policies

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements by all entities within the Group.

Basis of measurement

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis, except for derivative financial instruments, which are stated at fair value.

Going concern

These consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Group’s entities will continue as a going concern in the foreseeable future, not shorter than 12 months from 31 December 2016.

Functional and presentation currency

These consolidated financial statements are presented in the Polish zloty, rounded to million, the Group’s functional currency.

Use of estimates and judgments

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with EU IFRS requires the Management Board to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and costs. Estimates and underlying assumptions are based on historical data and other factors considered as reliable under the circumstances, and their results provide grounds for an assessment of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities which cannot be based directly on any other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. Information about critical estimates and judgments in applying accounting policies is included in note 49.

Comparative financial information

Comparative data or data presented in previously published financial statements has been updated, if necessary, in order to reflect presentational changes introduced in the current period. The changes had no impact on previously reported amounts of net income or equity.

It should be noted that the year ended 31 December 2016 is not be comparable to the year ended 31 December 2015 as Radio PIN was acquired on 27 February 2015, Orsen Holding Limited was acquired on 1 April 2015, Litenite Ltd. was acquired on 29 February 2016 and IT Polpager S.A. was acquired on 30 September 2016.

Basis of consolidation

(i) Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Parent. The Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.

The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases.

The financial statements of subsidiaries are prepared for the same period as the financial statements of the Company and using the accounting policies that are consistent with those of the Company for like transactions and events.

(ii) Joint arrangements

The Group applies IFRS 11 to all joint arrangements. Under IFRS 11 investments in joint arrangements are classified as either joint operations or joint ventures depending on the contractual rights and obligations of each investor. The Group has assessed the nature of its joint arrangements and determined them to be joint ventures. Joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.

Under the equity method of accounting, interests in joint ventures are initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognise the Group’s share of the post-acquisition profits or losses and movements in other comprehensive income. When the Group’s share of losses in a joint ventures equals or exceeds its interests in the joint ventures (which includes any long term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net investment in the joint ventures), the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the joint ventures.

Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and its joint ventures are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the joint ventures. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of the joint ventures have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.

(iii) Transactions eliminated on consolidation

Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealised gains and losses or income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.

Unrealised gains arising from transactions with associates and joint ventures are eliminated against the investment to the extent of the Group’s interest in the entity. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

(iv) Entities acquired under common control

Business combinations are governed by IFRS 3 "Business Combinations". However, this standard excludes from its scope transactions between entities under common control. According to IAS 8 par. 10-12, in the absence of an IFRS that specifically applies to a transaction, management shall use its judgment in developing and applying accounting policy that shall be consistently used for similar transactions.

Accordingly, the Group has chosen the acquisition method for entities acquired under common control in accordance with IFRS 3.

Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the Polish zloty at exchange rates in effect one day prior to the recording of these transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated to Polish zloty at the average exchange rate quoted by the National Bank of Poland (“NBP”) for that date. The foreign currency exchange differences arising on translation of transactions denominated in foreign currencies and from the reporting date retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in profit and loss. Non-monetary assets and liabilities in a foreign currency that are measured in terms of historical cost are translated using the average NBP exchange rate in effect at the date of the initial recognition. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are translated at the average NBP foreign exchange rate in effect at the date the fair value was determined.

Financial instruments

(i) Non-derivative financial instruments

Non-derivative financial instruments comprise investments in equity and debt securities, trade and other receivables, cash and cash equivalents, loans and borrowings, and trade and other liabilities.

Non-derivative financial instruments, other than investments recognized at fair value through profit and loss, are recognized initially at fair value plus any directly attributable transaction costs (with certain exceptions as described below).

A financial instrument is recognized when the Group becomes a party to the contractual obligations of the instrument. The Group derecognises a financial asset when contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial assets expire, or it transfers the financial asset to another party in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred. Standardised transactions for sale or purchase of financial assets are recognized at the transaction date i.e. on the date the Group assumes an obligation to acquire or sell the asset. Financial liabilities are derecognized when the Group’s obligations specified in the contract expire or are discharged or cancelled.

Principles for recognition of gains and losses on investment activities and costs are presented in note 6v.

Loans and receivables and other financial liabilities

Loans and receivables which are not derivative financial instruments are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. Other non-derivative financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand and call deposits. The cash and cash equivalents balance presented in the consolidated cash flow statement comprises the above mentioned elements of cash and cash equivalents.

(ii) Derivative financial instruments

Hedge accounting

The Group may use derivative financial instruments such as forward currency contracts, foreign exchange call options, interest rate swaps and cross-currency interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency and interest rate risks. The Group may use forward currency contracts, foreign exchange call options and cross-currency interest rate swaps as cash flow hedges of its exposure to foreign currency risk in forecasted EUR denominated fixed coupon payments on Eurobonds as well as interest rate swaps for its exposure to volatility in the interest payments on floating rate debt.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, the Group’s hedges are classified as cash flow hedges when hedging exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction.

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Group formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Group wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the Group will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

For cash flow hedges the effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognized directly as other comprehensive income in the hedge valuation reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the income statement.

The amounts recognized within other comprehensive income are transferred from equity to the income statement when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the related gain or loss is recognized in Finance costs or when a forecast sale occurs.

Gains and losses from the settlement of derivative instruments that are designated as, and are effective hedging instruments, are presented in the same position as the impact of the hedged item. The derivative instrument is divided into a current portion and a non-current portion only if a reliable allocation can be made.

Other derivatives not designated for hedge accounting

Derivative instruments that are not designated for hedge accounting are recognized initially at fair value, attributable transaction costs are recognized in the profit or loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, the Group measures those derivative financial instruments at fair value, and changes therein are recognized in profit or loss.

Derivative instruments that are not designated as effective hedging instruments are classified as current or non-current or divided into a current and non-current portion based on an assessment of the relevant facts and circumstances (i.e., the underlying contracted cash flows):

  • Where the Group intends to hold a derivative instrument considered an economic hedge (for which hedge accounting is not applied) for a period exceeding 12 months after the reporting date, such derivative instrument is classified as non-current (or divided into current and non-current portions) consistent with the classification of the underlying item.
  • Embedded derivates that are not closely related to the host contract are classified consistent with the cash flows of the host contract.


Ordinary shares

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares are recognized as a deduction from equity.

Preference share capital

Preference share capital is classified as equity, if it is non-redeemable, or redeemable only at the Company’s option, and any dividends are discretionary. Dividends thereon are recognized as distributions within equity.

Costs attributable to issue and public offering of shares

Costs attributable to a new issue of shares are recognized in equity while costs attributable to a public offering of existing shares are recognized directly in finance costs. These costs relating to both new issue and sale of existing shares are recognized on a pro-rata basis in equity and finance costs.

Share premium

Share premium includes the excess of the issue value over the nominal value of shares issued decreased by share issuance-related consulting costs.

Retained earnings

In accordance with the provisions of the Commercial Companies Code, joint-stock companies are required to transfer at least 8% of their annual net profits to reserve capital until its amount reaches one third of the amount of their share capital. This capital is excluded from distribution, however, it can be utilised to cover accumulated losses.

Property, plant and equipment

(i) Property, plant and equipment owned by the Group

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.

Cost includes purchase price of the asset and other expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition and bringing the asset to a working condition for its intended use, including initial delivery as well as handling and storage costs. The cost of purchased assets is reduced by the amounts of vendor discounts, rebates and other similar reductions received.

The cost of self-constructed assets and assets under construction includes all costs incurred for their construction, installation, adoption, and improvement as well as borrowing costs incurred until the date they are accepted for use (or until the reporting date for an asset not yet accepted for use). The above cost also may include, if necessary, the estimated cost of dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site. Purchased software that is integral to the functionality of the related equipment is capitalised as part of that equipment.

When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

(ii) Investment property

Investment property is defined as a property (land, building, or both) held by the Group to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both.

Investment property is measured initially at cost. Once recognized all investment property held by the Group are measured using the cost model as set out in IAS 16. This means that the assets are recognized at cost and depreciated systematically over its useful life as presented in (i) above.

Investment property is removed from the balance sheet on disposal or when it is permanently withdrawn from use and no further economic benefits are expected from its disposal.

(iii) Subsequent costs

Subsequent cost of replacing a component of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the component will flow to the Group and the amount of the cost can be measured reliably. Replaced item is derecognized. Other property, plant and equipment related costs are recognized in profit and loss as incurred.

(iv) Depreciation

Depreciation expense is based on the cost of an asset less its residual value. Significant components of individual assets are assessed and if a component has a useful life that is different from the remainder of that asset, that component is depreciated separately.

Depreciation is recognized in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of each component of an item of property, plant and equipment.

Land is not depreciated.

The following are estimated useful lives of respective group of property, plant and equipment:

Reception equipment3 or 5years
Buildings and structures2 - 61years
Technical equipment and machinery2 - 30years
Vehicles2 - 10years
Other2 - 26years

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values of material assets are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted if appropriate.

(v) Leased assets

Assets used under lease, tenancy, rental or similar contracts which meet finance lease criteria, are classified as non-current assets and measured at an amount equal to the lower of their fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Set-top boxes, modems and routers that are provided to customers under operating lease agreements are recognized within property, plant and equipment (Reception equipment in the balance sheet).

Assets subject to the lease are depreciated in a manner that is consistent with the policies applied to similar Group-owned assets. Depreciation is based on the principles of IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment. Where it is not reasonably certain that the lessee will obtain ownership of the asset before the lease term ends, the asset is depreciated over its useful life or the lease term, if shorter.

Carrying amounts of reception equipment and other items of property, plant and equipment may be reduced by impairment losses whenever there is any indication that an asset may be impaired or there is uncertainty as to those assets’ revenue generating potential or their future use in the Group’s operations. The accounting policies relating to impairment are presented in note 6o.

Intangible assets

(i) Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of the sum of consideration transferred and payable, the amount of non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the fair value as at the date of acquisition of any previously held equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired.

Goodwill is presented at purchase price less accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if possible impairment is indicated. Goodwill is allocated to acquirer’s cash-generating units for the purpose of testing for impairment. The allocation is made to those cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose.

(ii) Customer relationships

Customer relationships acquired as a result of the acquisition of subsidiaries are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives.

(iii) Brands

Brands acquired as a result of the acquisition of subsidiaries are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives, except where an indefinite period of use is justified. Brands with an indefinite useful life are tested annually for impairment or more frequently if impairment indicators exist. The estimated useful lives for respective brands are as follows:

  • Polsat, TV4, TV6 and Ipla brands: indefinite useful life
  • Plus brand: 51 years (i.e.2065).

(iv) Other intangible assets

The Group capitalises costs of IT software internally generated, including employee-related expenses, directly resulting from generation and preparing asset to be capable of operating, if the Group is able to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to such development and when it can reliably establish the commencement as well as the completion date of the software development activities.

Other intangible assets acquired by the Group are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditure on existing intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is recognized in the profit or loss as incurred.

Amortization expense is based on the cost of an asset less its residual value.

Amortization is recognized in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets, other than goodwill, from the date that they are available for use. The recoverable amounts of intangible assets which are not yet available for use are measured as at each balance sheet date.

The estimated useful lives for respective intangible assets groups are as follows:

  • Computer software: 2-15 years,
  • Customer relationships: 3-13 years,
  • Concessions: period resulting from an administrative decision,
  • Other: 2-7 years.

Programming assets

Programming assets comprise acquired formats, licences and copyrights for broadcasting feature films, series, news and shows, capitalized costs of commissioned external productions ordered by the Group, capitalized sports rights and advance payments made (including advance payments for sports rights).

(i) Initial recognition

Programming rights, other than sports rights, are recognized at cost as programming assets when the legally enforceable licence period begins and all of the following conditions have been met:

  • the cost of each program is known or reasonably determinable,
  • the program material has been accepted by the Group in accordance with the conditions of the licence agreement,
  • the program is available for its first showing.

Capitalized costs of productions include costs of programs ordered by the Group, including productions made based on licences purchased from third parties. Capitalized costs of productions are measured individually for each program at their respective production or acquisition costs, not to exceed their recoverable amounts.

Sports rights are recognized at cost at broadcast date. The rights to broadcast seasonal sports events, acquired in long term contracts (often for multiple seasons), are capitalized at cost based on a relative value assigned to a given season of the sport event as estimated by Group’s internal experts.

Advance payments for acquired programming assets, prior to licence begin date, are recognized as prepayments for programming assets.

Signed and binding contracts for purchase of programming, which do not meet recognition criteria for programming assets are not recognized in the balance sheet and are instead disclosed as contractual commitments in the amount of the outstanding contract liability at the reporting date.

Programming assets are classified as non-current or current based on the estimate timing of the broadcast. A programming asset is recognized as current when the expected broadcast falls within 1 year from the reporting date. Sport rights and prepayments for sport rights are classified as current or non-current based on dates of related sport events.

(ii) Amortization

Programming assets are amortized using the method reflecting the manner of consuming the economic benefits embodied in the licenses acquired within their estimated useful lives limited by the term of the respective license agreements.

  • Feature films and series – amortization starts at the first broadcast. Consumption of the economic benefits is measured using a declining balance method according to a standardized rate matrix and depends on the number of showings permitted or planned, primarily as described below:

 Feature films
Number of depreciable runsRate per run
4 and more35%25%25%15%
 TV series
Number of depreciable runsRate per run

  • Feature films and series broadcasted on thematic channels are mainly amortized in four or five runs using the rates of 25% and 20% respectively.
  • Sport rights – 100% of the cost is recognized in profit or loss on the first broadcast or, where seasonal rights or rights for multiple seasons or competitions are acquired, such rights are principally amortized on a straight-line basis over the seasons or competitions.
  • Commissioned external productions intended for only one run are fully amortized on their first broadcast.
  • News programming is fully amortized at its first broadcast.
  • General entertainment shows are fully amortized at their first broadcast.

Amortization of programming assets is presented in Content costs line in the operating costs of the income statement.

(iii) Impairment

Programming assets are reviewed for impairment at least annually and whenever there is any indication that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Impairment losses are recognized on each license in case of withdrawal from broadcasting an item in the expected future (resulting from changes in strategic program scheduling, changing audience tastes, media law restrictions on the usability of films) and expected future losses anticipated on disposal of the rights.

Impairment write downs on programming assets are recognized as part of the cost of sales. Impairment of programming assets is reversed if the reason for the original impairment ceases to exist. The reversals are recorded as cost of sales reductions.


Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of acquisition or production cost of inventories is determined by using the weighted average cost method.

The cost of inventories includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and other costs incurred in making them available for use or sale. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, cost includes an appropriate share of production overheads determined based on normal operating capacity.

Net realisable value is the current market price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. In the case of set-top boxes, mobile phones, modems and tablets, which under the business model applied by the Group are sold below cost, the loss on the sale is recorded when transferred to the customer.

The Group creates an allowance for slow-moving or obsolete inventories.


Prepayments for data transfer purchases are recognized in the nominal value upon payments made. The costs are recognized in the income statement based on the actual usage of data transmission and contractual fees. Prepayments, which will be settled after 12 months from the balance sheet date are presented as non-current assets.

Impairment of assets

(i) Financial assets

A financial asset is considered to be impaired if objective evidence indicates that one or more events had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset.

An impairment loss in respect of a financial asset measured at amortized cost is calculated as the difference between its carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the original effective interest rate.

Individually significant financial assets are tested for impairment on an individual basis at each reporting date. The remaining financial assets are assessed for impairment collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics.

Receivables are reduced by an allowance based on the likelihood of future debt collection. The allowance is charged to the cost of debt collection services and bad debt allowance and receivables written off. An allowance for receivables from individuals is estimated based on the historical pattern for overdue receivables collection.

All impairment losses are recognized in profit or loss statement in Cost of debt collection services and bad debt allowance and receivables written off.

Impairment losses are reversed if a subsequent increase in the recoverable amount of a financial asset can be objectively attributed to an event occurring after the impairment losses were recognized.

(ii) Non-financial assets

The carrying amounts of non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated by the Group. The recoverable amount of intangible assets which are not yet available for use as well as of goodwill and brands with indefinite useful life is estimated at each reporting date.

An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset or its related cash-generating unit exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. A cash-generating unit represents the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of thereof. Impairment losses are recognized in profit or loss. Impairment losses recognized in respect of a cash-generating unit are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit (group of units), and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the cash-generating unit on a pro rata basis.

The recoverable amount of an asset or a cash-generating unit is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In the case of assets that do not generate independent cash inflows, the value in use is estimated for the smallest identifiable cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, impairment losses recorded in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized.

Employee benefits

(i) Defined contribution plan

All Group entities that act as employers have an obligation, under applicable legislation, to collect and remit contributions to the state pension fund. According to IAS 19 Employee Benefits such benefits represent state plans that are classified as defined contribution plans. Therefore, the Group’s obligations for a given period are estimated as the amount of contributions to be remitted for that period.

(ii) Defined benefit plan – retirement benefits

The Group entities have an obligation, under applicable legislation, to pay retirement benefits calculated in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Polish labor code. The minimum retirement benefit is as per the labor code provisions at the moment of payment.

The calculation is carried out using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Employee turnover is estimated based on historical experience and expected future employment levels.

Changes in the amount of the retirement benefits liability are recognized in the income statement. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the equity, in other comprehensive income in full in the period they originated.

(iii) Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are recognized as an expense as the related service is provided.

A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid under short-term bonus, if the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to make such payments as a result of past services provided by the employees and the obligation can be estimated reliably.


A provision is recognized if, as a result of past event, the Group has a present obligation, and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Where the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

Certain disclosures may not be included in these consolidated financial statements as they relate to sensitive information.

(i) Warranties

A provision for warranties is recognized when the underlying products or goods are sold. The amount of the provision is based on historical warranty data and a weighting of all possible outflows against their associated probabilities.

(ii) Onerous contracts

A provision for onerous contracts is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract. Before a provision is established, the Group recognizes any impairment loss on the assets dedicated to that contract.

Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Group or a present obligation that arises from past events, but its amount cannot be estimated reliably or it is not probable that there will be an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits.

The Group does not recognize a contingent liability, except for contingent liability assumed in a business combination.

Unless the possibility of any outflow in settlement is remote, the Group discloses for each class of contingent liability at the end of the reporting period a brief description of the nature of the contingent liability and, where practice able:

  • an estimate of its financial effect,
  • an indication of the uncertainties relating to the amount or timing of any outflow and
  • the possibility of any reimbursement.


Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, representing the gross inflow of economic benefit from Group’s operating activities, net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence exists that recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs can be estimated reliably and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. If it is probable that discounts will be granted and the amount can be measured reliably, then such discounts are recognized as a reduction of revenue when it is recognized.

The Group’s main sources of revenue are recognized as follows:

a) Retail revenue consists primarily of monthly subscription fees paid by our pay digital television contract customers for programming packages, subscription fees paid by our contract customers for telecommunication services, fees for telecommunication services provided to our contract customers, which are not included in the subscription fee, payments for telecommunication services paid by our prepaid and mix customers, fees for the lease of set-top boxes, activation fees, penalties, and fees for additional services. 
Services revenues are recognized in profit and loss in the period when related services are rendered.
Revenues from prepaid mobile telephone services are recognized in profit or loss once the prepaid credit is utilized or forfeited.
Revenue from the rental of reception equipment and activation fees are recognized on a straight-line basis over the minimum base period of the subscription contract.
b) Wholesale revenue comprises advertising and sponsorship revenue, revenue from cable and satellite operator fees, revenue from the lease of infrastructure, interconnect revenue, revenue from roaming, revenue from the sale of broadcasting and signal transmission services and revenue from the sale of licenses, sublicenses and property rights.
Advertising and sponsorship revenue is derived primarily from broadcasting of advertising content and is recognized in the period when the advertising is broadcast. Revenue is recognized in profit or loss in the amount due from customers net of value added tax, taxes on revenue from advertising of alcohol beverages and any rebates granted. Advertising and sponsorship revenue also comprises revenue on commissions on sales of commercial airtime when the Group acts as an agent on behalf of third parties. The commissions are recognized at amounts due from the buyers of advertising airtime or sponsorship services, less of any amounts due to television broadcasters. Revenue from commissions on sales of commercial airtime and from sponsorship is recognized in the consolidated income statement when these services are rendered.
Revenue from charges made to cable and satellite operators includes fees from cable and satellite operators for reemission (rebroadcasting) of programs produced by the Group. Revenue is recognized when the related programs are broadcast.
Services revenues are recognized in profit and loss in the period when related services are rendered, net of any discount given.
c) Revenue from sale of equipment is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of discounts, rebates and returns. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized in profit or loss when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer.
d) Other revenue is recognized, net of any discount given, when the relevant goods or service are provided.
Other revenue includes primarily revenue from the lease of premises and facilities, revenue from interest on installment plan purchase and other sales revenue.

When the Group sells goods and services in one bundled transaction, the total consideration from the arrangement is allocated to each element of such multiple-element arrangements based on residual method in such a way that the amount recognized for items already received cannot be higher than cash already received.

Distribution fees

Commissions payable to distributors for registering new subscribers and for retention of existing subscribers are recognized over the minimum base period of the subscription agreement.

Commissions for distributors which will be settled within 12 months of the reporting date are classified as other current assets, while the commissions, which will be settled more than 12-months after the reporting date, are classified as non-current assets.

Barter revenue and cost

Barter revenue is recognized when the services are rendered or goods delivered. Programming licences, products and services received are expensed or capitalized when received or used. The Group recognizes barter transactions at the estimated fair value of the programming licences, products or services received. When products or services are received before related advertising is broadcast, a liability is recognized by the Group. Conversely, when advertising is broadcast before products or services are received, a receivable is recognized by the Group.

Gains and losses on investment activities and finance costs

Gains and losses on investment activities include interest income on funds invested, interest expenses (other than interest expenses on borrowings), dividends income, results on the disposal of available-for-sale financial instruments, fair value gains/losses on financial instruments (other than interest rate derivatives) at fair value through profit or loss, net foreign currency gains/losses, and results on completed forward exchange contracts and call options, impairment losses recognized on financial assets.

Interest income and expense (other than interest expense on borrowings) is recognized as it accrues in profit or loss using the effective interest method. Dividends income is recognized in profit or loss on the date that the Group’s right to receive payment is established.

Finance costs comprise interest expense on borrowings (including bank loans and bonds), foreign exchange gains/losses on bonds, realization and valuation costs of hedging instruments and instruments not under hedge accounting related to finance activities, bank and other charges on borrowings as well as guarantee fees resulting from the indebtedness. Borrowing costs are recognized in profit or loss using the effective interest method.

Lease payments

Payments made under operating leases are recognized in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognized as an integral part of the total lease expense, over the term of the lease.

Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Income tax

Income tax expense/benefit comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognized in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income.

Current tax is the tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach, in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred taxes are measured based on the expected manner of recovery or settlement of the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities, respectively, using tax rates that are enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

A deferred tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilized. An amount of deferred tax assets is reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be partly or wholly realized. When not recognized deferred tax asset becomes recoverable, it is recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax assets to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset by the Group companies.

Earnings per share

The Group presents basic and diluted earnings per share for its ordinary and preference shares. Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the period’s profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to ordinary and preference shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of ordinary and preference shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share are calculated by dividing the period’s profit or loss from the continuing operations attributable to ordinary and preference shareholders by the weighted average number of ordinary and preference shares, adjusted by the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary and preference shares.

Segment reporting

An operating segment is a component of the Group that is engaged in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transactions with any of the Group’s other components.

The Group presents operating segments according to its internal management accounting principles applied in the preparation of periodical management reports which are regularly analysed by the Management Board of Cyfrowy Polsat S.A. These reports are analyzed on regular basis by management which was identified as the chief operating decision maker.

Cash flows statement

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement are equal to cash and cash equivalents presented in the consolidated balance sheet.

Purchases of set-top boxes to be provided to customers under operating lease contracts are classified in the cash flows statement within operating activities. The purchases and disposals of these set-top boxes are classified in the cash flows statement within operating activities and presented asNet disposals/(additions) in reception equipment provided under operating lease”.

Acquisition of items of property, plant and equipment or intangible assets are presented in their net amount (net of related value added tax).

Payments for film licences and sport rights are presented on a net basis (net of related value added tax) within operating activities. Expenditures on the acquisition of programming assets also include the amount of withholding tax paid to the relevant tax authorities.